AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL SPACE
With the aggravation of urbanization, the aesthetic appreciation of economic activity profoundly influences the social life of contemporary China. The aesthetics of commercial space becomes an urgent topic to be studied. The development of contemporary commercial space begins to have universal aesthetic development orientation: aesthetics plays an important role in commodity display and space atmosphere construction. The thematic trend of commercial space is becoming more and more obvious; Thematic commercial space creates "spatial image"; At the same time, commercial space becomes the consumption "field" based on the code system, which adopts unique spatial design and metaphor to realize class division, social class, aesthetic taste and lifestyle.
I. With the aggravation of the urbanization process, the aestheticization of economic activities has profoundly affected the social life of contemporary China, and increasingly becomes an important social phenomenon and cultural phenomenon. "More and more realistic factors are hanging over the aesthetics," said German scholar welsch in the process of beautification: phenomena, differentiation, and prospects. The reality as a whole is gradually seen as an aesthetic construct. And aesthetic study how closely related to the reality of contemporary social development, and expand the research field, itself out of isolation and response to the profound changes of the society, has become an urgent problem of subject development. Aesthetic economics is we advocate to establish a subject, the object of aesthetic economics is the aesthetic problems in economic activities, in order to complete the economic activities of the product production, circulation and consumption of the three basic link as the study clue. As an aesthetic problem in the field of circulation, commercial space aesthetics has become one of the objects of our research.
At the same time, it is also a hot topic in recent years, such as art science and literature and art, etc., which focuses on the "aestheticization of daily life".
It is not difficult to find that commercial space is undergoing a comprehensive aesthetic. "Today, if we're looking for vibrant beauty and art, the best place to go is probably not the traditional art gallery or the grand theater, but the shopping center and the street-level shops on both sides of the street." The significance of modern commercial space never ended as a place for commodity circulation, it also with many goods and spectacular scenes, sublimation build surreal dream kingdom, even for "happy ritualized sacred space." Shopping loses a materiality and becomes a cultural event (baudrillard). The aestheticization of economic activity can have two different disciplinary orientations. One is the orientation of economics and the other is the orientation of cultural sociology (aesthetics is included in the second orientation).
From aesthetic dimension, this paper analyses the "commercial space themed" and "spatial imagery", based on the code system of the consumption of "field" and other common but has yet to be in-depth study on several issues, hope to do a traditional aesthetics theory into the context of era, the beneficial attempt to develop the field of social activities and extension.
“主题化为应用主题的事物提供了意义和象征性的平台。它赋予这些事物一种超现实的意义，至少也是对事物真实意义的一种补充。通过主题化为事物灌输意义后，这些事物将变得比不使用主题时更加诱人和有趣味。” “主题化”的意义在激烈的商业竞争中产生。首先，营销学上的“毗邻吸引原理”认为，“将原本可能不起眼的商品或服务放在一种有趣且意义超出商品和服务本身意义的环境中可能会增加它们的吸引力，进而增大它们被购买的可能性。”其次，“主题化”是实现店铺“差异化”的重要手段。创造一个特色鲜明的消费场所，有利于使自己的店铺在众多商店中脱颖而出。西方学者因此使用了“商店形象”（store image）的概念。
商业空间有多种主题化方法。Garden Walk是日本著名的购物中心，它的特别之处在于，通过使用“隐喻”的空间造型设计，建成一座以花为主题的购物中心。Garden Walk是东京郊外的一个露天零售广场。它的商店屋顶是花瓣的形状，喷泉是郁金香的形状，表演舞台是向日葵的形状。在面积达到1.5万平方米的购物中心内，到处装饰着花的实体或形态，有4米长的玫瑰花丛，2米长的塑料“荆棘”展示出犹如“得克萨斯的黄玫瑰”之类的优美格调，鲜花和山茱萸开遍商场里的各个角落。隐喻分为“语言的”隐喻与“审美的”隐喻。我们这里所讲的是后者。“隐喻”一词来自希腊语的“metaphora”，“其字源‘meta’意思是‘超越’，而‘pherein’的意思则是‘传送’。它是指一套特殊的语言学程序，通过这种程序，一个对象的诸方面被‘传送’或者转换到另一个对象。”可见，两个对象之间的“隐喻”建立在相似性的基础上，而第二个对象不是第一个对象的简单再现，而是“超越”了的高度凝练的、被抽象化了的话语或形态。我们同意泰伦斯•霍克斯提出的观点，在“审美的”隐喻中，第一个对象确定了物体的主要特征，而第二个对象是要给物体以新的印象，使它“沉浸在一种新的气氛中”。
1996年，刚刚开业4年的芝加哥耐克城商店，超过艺术馆，成为当地最热门的旅游点，年客流量超过100万人。正如某些人所说的：“有创造力的市场销售者模糊了市场和戏院的界限。”商业空间的审美化引起广泛争论，有反对者认为，“商业空间中的布置导致人的一种感受,就是被描述为感觉的缺失、迷失、不在场（a sense of lack,ofloss,of absence）。有人为了抗议消费主义中商业环境刻意营造的膜拜气氛，和人在其语境下的主体迷失，在巴黎墙上写下标语：
II. Thematization of commercial space.
The theme of commercial space is becoming more and more obvious. "Thematization" is the concept in marketing, which refers to "applying a topic to certain institutions or places" to give it some special meaning and atmosphere of attraction. A Michael Jordan shop, a medieval restaurant, and a fashion shop with a nostalgic decor are all "themed". The source of the western scholars put forward a variety of topics, Mrs. Diener (Gottdiener) put forward nine important theme: identity, a tropical paradise, wild west region, ancient civilizations, nostalgia, Arab hall, city characteristics, fort buildings and guards, modernism and progress. Alan Bryman thinks that gottdina has missed three important sources: music, sports and movies. Schmidt (Schmitt and Simonson (Simonson) think five "culture" is the primary source of theme: the physical world, the concept of philosophy and psychology, religion, politics and history, art, fashion and popular culture.
"The theme becomes a platform of meaning and symbolism in the application of the subject matter. It gives these things a surreal meaning, at least a complement to the real meaning of things. These things become more attractive and interesting than when they are not subject to the subject, after the subject is infused with meaning. The meaning of "thematization" is generated in the intense commercial competition. First of all, on the marketing principle of "adjacent to attract" thought, "could have been ordinary goods or services in a fun and meaning beyond itself significance of goods and services may increase their attractiveness in the environment, thus increasing the possibility that they are buying." Secondly, "thematization" is an important means to realize the "differentiation" of stores. Creating a distinctive consumer space will help make your store stand out from the crowd. Western scholars therefore use the concept of "store image".
There are a number of thematic approaches to business space. Garden Walk is the famous shopping center in Japan. What's special about it is that it has built a flower themed shopping center by using the "metaphor" space modeling design. Garden Walk is an open-air retail plaza outside Tokyo. Its shop roof is the shape of the petals, the fountain is the tulip shape, the performance stage is the shape of the sunflower. Within the area of 15000 square meters of shopping centers, everywhere decorated with flowers of entities or form, have 4 meters long rose bushes, 2 meters long plastic "thorn" show like "yellow rose of Texas" style, beautiful flowers and dogwood bloom in every corner of the mall. Metaphor is divided into "language" and "aesthetic" metaphor. What we're talking about here is the latter. The word "metaphor" comes from the Greek word for "meaning a". "the word 'meta' means' transcendence 'and' pherein 'means' transmission'. It refers to a special set of linguistic programs, through which an object's aspects are 'transmitted' or converted to another object. Visible, "metaphor" between the two objects based on the similarity of, and the second object is not the first simple representation of an object, but the height of the "beyond" the concise, the abstract words or form. We agree to terrence hawkes's point of view is put forward, in the "aesthetic" metaphor, the first object to determine the main characteristics of the object, and the second object is for objects with new impression, make it "immersed in a new atmosphere.
Garden Walk the roof of the shopping center is the shape of the petals, the fountain is the shape of a tulip, performing stage is the shape of a sunflower, the rest seats in the square is in the form of thorns, petals, tulips, sunflower, seat is not a simple imitation of nature forms, it is a highly abstracted form, but they can make the person think of natural, pure and fresh and fragrant flowers.
The construction of thematic commercial space depends on the combination of lighting, acoustics, stage, scenery and other artistic techniques. Nike is one of the world's most famous sports and leisure brands, and the Nike city is a temple dedicated to the Nike brand. They use two themes: the theme of the stadium and the theme of the museum.
The theme of the stadium is reflected in a small basketball court in the store. , los firm (Pe 觡 aloza) mentioned in Nike town of Chicago wrote: "the melody of the new century ripples in the sports shoes, playing tennis and the audience cheering sound make area alive, sports shoes and wooden floor creaking sound friction, the basketball into the basket, swish, vocals, foil the basketball area, let I can't help but want to go play a game of basketball... The stadium, where customers try on basketball shoes, has a smooth wooden floor and a cheering audience. The three stories almost seven square feet of Nike town, pervaded the MTV style of music, there are many classic games on the big screen, like in the movie theater, hanging in the shop spokesman Michael Jordan air dunk huge posters.
In 1996, just four years after its opening in Chicago, the Nike city store surpassed the art gallery to become the most popular tourist spot in the city, with more than 1 million visitors annually. As some say: "creative market sellers blur the line between the market and the theater." Commercial space aesthetic controversy over, opponents argue that "commercial space layout of cause a person's a kind of feeling, is described as the feeling of missing, lost, is not present (a sense of lack, ofloss, of absence). Some people, in protest of the atmosphere of worship created by the commercial environment in the consumerism, and the subjects lost in their context, wrote a slogan on the wall of Paris:
The more you spend, the farther away you are from life. '"
空间意象美国学者凯文•林奇（Kevin Lynch）提出城市设计中的重要概念──“环境意象”。所谓“环境意象”，指“一个外在具体世界的共同化精神图像……，这意象是瞬间的感觉（immediate sensation）和对过去经验的记忆两者所产生的结果，它并且用来解释认知和指示着行动……”他注意到将一个区域的整体作为研究对象，并从“精神图像”的层面研究人的认知。
III. Environmental imagery.
Space image American scholar Kevin Lynch (Kevin Lynch) put forward the important urban design concept ─ ─ "environment image". The so-called "environmental image" refers to "a common mental image of an external and specific world... This image is the result of the immediate sensation and the memory of past experience, and it is used to explain cognition and to indicate action... He noticed that the whole of a region was studied as a research object and studied people's cognition from the perspective of "mental image".
According to the extension of "environmental image" theory, the author believes that the themed commercial space has created a kind of "spatial image" in aesthetics. This theory is the premise of aesthetic concept of "imagery" ─ "environment image" ─ "spatial imagery" logic of relationship derived from just sex, namely, we have to examine Kevin lynch's concept of "image" of "environmental image" whether to have identity as an aesthetic category of "image". In Chinese classical aesthetics, image refers to the combination of the object and the subject. The scene of leaving the object, or the feeling of leaving the subject, cannot produce an aesthetic image. In the history of western aesthetics, the representation of image theory includes Kant, croce, pound, Sartre and Susan long. For example, the concept of image in "a few forbidden cases" is expressed as: "an image is a complex of rationality and sensibility in an instant. The sudden appearance of 'this complex' gives a feeling of sudden liberation, free from the constraints of time and space. Can find that the images of the environment in the "image", an aesthetic theory support: "object" namely "external world" concrete, through the unity of subject and object, namely, "common", the formation of aesthetic imagery (" mental image "), an instant feeling (immediate since) and pound's "in a flash presents a rational and perceptual complex" synonymous.
We also expound the forming process of "space image" from the aesthetic characteristics of commercial space.
Firstly, "image" emphasizes the integration of the object with the subject.
In terms of its essence, the image is not an objective view, nor is it the appearance created in the subject mind, but the combination of emotion and scene, subjective and objective unity. Images are produced in the fusion of situations. Today, shopping becomes the dream world, and shopping becomes a kind of hedonic and aesthetic experience. In these places, or luxuriant scene image design of fashion, sparkling, or people's dream, from distant exotic home, or to express appreciation to the past quiet mood and nostalgia. Someone compared shopping center to oblivion of utopia, the shopping to a carnival, "utopian ideal and reality through this unique carnival feelings in the world, and one for a while." Second, the creation of "image" emphasizes "instant feeling", which is confirmed in the aesthetic experience of commercial space.
Jameson used the time pattern and spatial pattern to distinguish the pre-modern features and post-modern features of the consumer society. The so-called time pattern, the logos mode, emphasizes the linear relation between things, which mainly refers to the cultural way of the former modern society with language and rationality as logic; "When the chain of time is broken, the feeling of the present becomes extremely intense, vivid and materialistic, and greatly increases its intensity." The consumption of post-modern society emphasizes the "current experience" in pursuit of instant visual aesthetic pleasure. In simmel studied the buying behavior of people in the city found that personal curiosity has been aroused, in a wide variety of colours shopping space, moments of beauty constantly stimulate nerve of excessive exhaustion. In the article, "metropolis and spiritual life", he points out: "the psychological foundation of the metropolis is contained in the intense excitement... The difference between an instant and a lasting impression will stimulate his mind. Thirdly, the state of the aesthetic "image" is "to use the mind and not to stir, but to the god".
If there is only one image in my mind, I can forget the things that I have forgotten, and I have become a breath of things, which is the characteristic of the contemplation of beauty.
The necessary condition for "to use the mind" is to be out of materiality without utility. Contemporary lost shopping shopping, become a cultural event, in these places, people sometimes to achieve such a state: forget the "where" (where), forget this is a shopping mall or department store building, as if in the gallery or paradise; Forget when (when), like a child to wander, wandering, forget the time of the escape, and the brightly lit shopping space has long been a distinction between night and day; Also forget the "why" (according to) and the "how come" (whence), shopping is not a rational purchase activity, and evolved into a kind of aesthetic activity, in which people peered viewing, as in a museum of art treasures, edify sentiment, even forget reality in an instant, and aesthetic attitude, perceptual awareness of the present atmosphere, concentration, dedication "hyperreality" state.
This state of mind is similar to the state of mind when people worship in a church.
"Commercial space is built into the church of things because of aesthetics, and they attract people to make pilgrimages with the promise of satisfying consumers. Shopping space overwhelms the people in space with their vast scale, self-satisfied feelings and an environment that is built away from the hustle and bustle of the outside world. Like the church, the business space is a place away from the daily grind, where you get the adventure of a pilgrimage. No matter how noisy it is in business space, it always feels quiet and peaceful. The commercial space gives people an entrance, from the entrance to the world separated from reality, where the spirit of the people is far from the reality of struggle and suffering and compensation. In recent years, research, commercial space is frequently described as "commodity fetishism" holy land, because it shows extraordinary space image, and the individual spirit in this image of "peaceful" state.
杰姆逊通过对后现代社会文化现象的研究得出结论说，“我们的日常生活，我们的精神经历，我们的文化语言，今天都受到空间范畴而非时间范畴的控制……”商业空间是产生社会意义的空间，它以特有的空间设计、隐喻，实现阶级分野，区隔社会阶层、审美品位、生活方式。“Crompton在1993年提出，近来出现另一种划分等级阶层的方法,这种方法基于一个论断，那就是阶层之间的联系和联盟,越来越少地以职业或财产为根据,取而代之的是在消费的竞技场划分人的等级（Burrows and Marsh在1992年,Warde在1994年也提出过类似观点)。”上海人爱去淮海路，因为淮海路是以国际性的商业街为标杆的，那里有最好的品牌店，最富有的阶层。逛淮海路使上海人有作为国际化大都市市民的优越感。正如诺伯格－舒尔茨指出的：“社会阶层、社会文化群落与其他群体的界限以及城市与人的关系，都镶嵌在一定的空间中。各种空间的隐喻，如位置、领域、边界、边缘与核心等，无不透露、表征着社会阶层、群落的界限所在，也是个体
IV. The space of production significance.
Shanghai writer we in the context of "Shanghai woman - based", through the eye of urban white-collar miss du description of huaihai road amorous feelings: "winter sunshine from tall plane trees bald branches snowed, street house neat, pedestrian shoes is very bright. This is the face of Shanghai, like the fifth avenue in New York, the ginza in Tokyo, the champs elysees in Paris, and the Neva avenue in Petersburg. The most expensive shops, the best looking goods are all glittering here... Shanghai natives always say that outsiders go to nanjing road and Shanghai people go to huaihai road, because huaihai road is more suitable for Shanghai people's appetite. "Walking in the huaihai road is a way to relax, an amateur competition, a lifelong school, a salon without a roof."
This is the true story of the consumer society: shopping has infiltrated every aspect of our lives, so shopping space and its streets are constantly changing the face of the city. Some people say that to read a city, you must understand its most prosperous commercial street. The huaihai road, known as the "champs-elysees" in China, is the face of Shanghai. The representative significance of commercial space is determined by the context of consumer society. As Japanese scholars had wide division, said, "for a certain culture, so long as has the dominant role of space, people will inevitably be living in them, the space of thinking, space imagination, can avoid the dominant space... Now, the dominant space is commercial space." "In the huaihai road walking is a form of recreation depressed, an amateur sports, is a lifetime of schools, a roof of salon" is pointed out that "shopping" and "commercial space" of sociology and culture meaning. Commercial space be provided to the pastime depressed paradise, sporting a let a person involved in fashion, taste, a gathered all celebrities to show social talent, charisma and the salon, explain "business space" has been from the traditional space in the sense of physical category into a social category has rich connotation. The significance of commercial space is concerned by many theorists. Michael Deere concludes in "postmodern urban conditions" that "significant space has become a universal consensus".
Partial on the phenomenon of post-modern social culture study concluded that "our daily life, our spiritual experience, our culture, language, today they were given a space category rather than the time of control... "Commercial space is the space that generates social significance. It adopts unique spatial design and metaphor to realize class division, which is divided into social class, aesthetic taste and lifestyle. "Who put forward in 1993, the other are the latest in a grade a class method, this method is based on a judgment, the link between the class and alliance, based on less and less land or property as a professional, instead of spending the arena of human level (Burrows and Marsh in 1992, Warde also put forward a similar view in 1994)." Shanghai people like to go to huaihai road, because huaihai road is the international commercial street, which has the best brand shop and the richest class. Huaihai road makes shanghainese a sense of superiority as a cosmopolitan city citizen. As norberg-schultz points out, "the boundaries between social class, social and cultural communities and other groups, and the relationship between cities and people, are embedded in certain Spaces. All kinds of spatial metaphors, such as location, domain, boundary, edge and core, all reveal and represent the boundaries of social class and community, as well as individuals.
The mechanism of mental identity or rejection of the city. Bourdieu's field theory deserves our attention. "Consumption patterns are formed and expressed in a particular field and thus subject to field constraints," bourdieu said. Field is a struggle of the premises, which shows the power relations in the specific field, and consumption is, of course, so, in which performance is symbol of different class struggle and govern relations." The field theory is the important basis of bourdieu's reflection on social space relations, which has two core concepts: "field" and "habitus". A field is a network of relationships, a combination of objective relationships between positions. In these networks, each field has its own logic of dominance. The consumption place also shows the symbol struggle and domination relation of different stratum. In and out of the consumer place, for example, we have to consider yourself in the position in society, luxury brand, product and consumption space at the moment has a symbolic meaning, symbol of power struggle to make a similar small staff of civilians and to luxury shops. "Shopping stores are not just about symbols, they are complex systems of symbolic assembly. They're text. As Lefebvre points out, these Spaces are filled with symbols of life (happiness, happiness), style, taste, wealth, power and so on. "Rituals" (habitus) and "habit" (habit) is different, it is part of the group in the long life time together in the formation of the stable grade, beliefs, and habits, is a sign of collective identity. In luxury stores, where the city is newly rich, and in the green design concept shop, the "lok" people feel close to each other. Therefore, the significance of commercial space is that it distinguishes the class or culture group with different "habits". In a particular business space, people realize identification with people of the same class or grade, and find a sense of belonging.
The question that needs to be further explored here is how is the symbolic value of business space perceived? We believe that interior design and aesthetic style are the media that convey the meaning of commercial space. Take the PRADA store in Manhattan. The store, which is located in Manhattan's SOHO district, is a very expensive location, but its space utilization is very low. The concept of the designer is that such low space utilization is consistent with the luxury brand characteristics of PRADA, and the waste of space reflects luxury. Inside the huge building is a "wavy display" of sunken space, stretching from the entrance to the ground floor and up to the ground, where it is paved with timber from tropical America. The ground near Broadway is a stairway, with a large display of steps across the steps, and the audience can sit on the steps while performing at large shows and shows. The design of PRADA New York store shows the originality of stylist, the most outstanding is the space design shows extraordinary luxurious gas degree. On behalf of the public, by contrast, consumption level of McDonald's store, came into sight is M shape golden arches logo, neat and bright glass, hard plastic table, bench and new products put on the wall posters, step into the world any a McDonald's restaurant space, like into the same store. "The analysis of production shows that we have shifted from the production of things in space to the production of space itself," he said.