“城市家具”的概念在近年流行起来,其实它就是指城市中各种户外环境设施。专业人士介绍,城市家具具体来说,就是信息设施 (指路标志、电话亭、邮箱),卫生设施(垃圾箱、饮水器),道路照明,安全设施,娱乐服务设施(坐具、桌子、游乐器械、售货亭), 交通设施(巴士站点、车棚)以及艺术景观设施(雕塑、艺术小品)等等。
The concept of "urban furniture" has become popular in recent years. In fact, it refers to all kinds of outdoor environment facilities in the city. Professional introduction, city furniture in particular, is information infrastructure (direction sign, telephone booth, mailbox), sanitation (dustbin, water fountain), road lighting, safety facilities, entertainment facilities (visitors, table, amusement equipment, kiosks), transport facilities, bus stops, carport) and art (sculpture, art sketch) landscape facilities, and so on.
1.The function of decoration aesthetics.
In certain cases a cheerful spirit, edify sentiment, is also the first impression of visual sense, the aesthetic function of city furniture not only can increase the life interest, but also can reflect the author's design idea and artistic attainments, the ordinary people can also have aesthetic to promote and develop. It is a reflection of The Times and a vision of the future.
2.It is a practical function.
As urban furniture, the role and concept of furniture is the same, is to meet the needs of urban residents life, and provide people with the use function such as identification, rely on and clean, this also is the leading cause of the urban furniture, functionality is the first problem must be solved.
3.The function of cultural inheritance.
As an important part of urban environmental landscape, urban furniture is especially important, without cultural city, it is a city without vitality. Culture can not only give a person with spiritual inspiration and edify, improve aesthetic enjoyment, also can adjust the mood, regulate the behavior of People's Daily, is the carrier of spiritual civilization and material civilization. At the same time, the emergence of urban furniture as a medium of cultural communication can transfer the culture and spirit of the city well. At the same time, it can effectively arouse the public's resonance and love for the region.
Furniture is an indispensable equipment in people's living environment. The relationship between furniture and human beings is closely related to the research on human behavior and the interface related research of human - object - environment system. In fact, each of us, each family, according to their own aesthetic taste, living habits and daily activities needs to choose, purchase furniture. In the process of the use of furniture, in the process of realizing its service function and utility, it will in turn restrain, induce and regulate the behavior of users. For example, different seats make people consciously adjust their sitting position. This is the "functional effect" of the "thing" through the consciousness and action of human beings.
Is the city not a big family with limited geographical space? If the urban environment of public facilities as the mutual "furniture" people in this big family, to understand, look, how "furniture city" in city construction has important position, improving on the lives of urban residents and how important significance is not Ming said.
“城市家具”一词源于欧美等经济发达国家,它是英文“Street Furniture”的中文解释。
之所以被称为“家具”,是因为它蕴含了人们对城市生活的憧憬 ,户外场所能像家一样方便舒适。定义虽然不甚严密,却给人一种备觉亲切的感觉,使得冰冷的设施也变得温馨。
The term "urban Furniture" is derived from the developed countries of Europe and the United States. It is the Chinese explanation of "Street Furniture" in English.
The reason why it is called "furniture" is that it contains people's longing for city life, and outdoor space can be as convenient and comfortable as home. Although the definition is not very strict, it gives people a feeling of warmness, making the cold facilities warm.
The concept of "urban furniture", which has a specific meaning, is really impressive. And this "deep" is that it indicates a new point of view, guide people to re-examine their own surroundings, thinking about the meaning of these things exist, and advocates from seeking "- - environment" system harmonious understanding height, "reasonable" to build now, grasp the future.
Small to the fruit trunk, traffic signs, big bus stops, urban lighting facilities and other urban environmental facilities will be integrated into the public's wisdom and creativity. Urban environmental infrastructure refers to the main street sidewalk set E-mail,, telephone booth, leisure chairs, bus shelters, traffic signs, billboards, lighting, flower beds, publicity banners, etc., these are all within easy reach of the citizens life service facilities, also has been vividly called "furniture city". The term "urban furniture" refers to the public facilities in the urban environment. Although the definition is not very strict, there is not a very kind sense of language.
The humanized design puts forward very high requirement to stylist.
First of all, it requires the designer to have the spirit of humanistic care, and can consciously pay attention to the factors neglected in the previous design process. Focus on the needs of the disadvantaged groups and the needs of the disabled.
Secondly, the designer is required to master the theoretical knowledge such as ergonomics, and apply it to practice to reflect the science and rationality of the facility function. Such as opening of the bin, high and low for people throwing trash, too big and will make the dirt, indecent and breeding flies, should also consider rainproof measures and facilitate clean workers clean, etc.
Thirdly, the design is designed to satisfy people's aesthetic needs by using aesthetic factors such as modeling, color, material, process, decoration and design.
Urban furniture is an important part of urban landscape, and its function is not only its own function, but also its ornamental and artistic. City furniture originality and visual image, directly affects the urban overall planning and quality of the space, most of these facilities while volume is not big, but is closely related with the life of the public, is closely connected with urban landscape and faithfully reflect the economic development level and cultural level of a city. With the development of the society, people life style, thinking mode and the way of communication is also in constant change, people are eager to modern material civilization at the same time, also eager to spiritual civilization moist, the humanized design of city furniture not only bring people life convenient, but also meet the demand of the people's social respect, more let people subconsciously feel a kind of comfortable and comfortable in using, and from the pleasure of tasting life conerted to eternal pursuit of beauty.
By the China academy of fine arts in collaboration with the two schools of Kiel, Germany technology academy of fine arts, named after the "furniture city" as the subject of design results show published, is not only China and Germany in the field of industrial design a good start to carry out academic exchanges, and industrial design profession GuangQiu focus on research to the society, so as to achieve consensus, in order to promote China's urban construction, improve the quality of urban environment and practice ACTS of kindness.
All city furniture on display system design plan and model, their different way of thinking of design but at the same time hold a same design concept: first, people-oriented, respect for the dignity of people, pay attention to the function of the effect; It is conducive to the harmony of mankind, the environment and the system of "human - things - environment".
⑴ 人性化原则
⑵ 整体化原则
⑶ 生态化原则
⑷ 地域化原则
城市家具的设计应该充分尊重场所的内在精神,一方面为人们创造理想的户外生活空间,另一方面更应该体现出整个城市的风格特色,向使用者有效地传递环境信息。由于每个城市所处国家、地区和形成年代的不同,城市风貌呈现出多样性。生活在其中的人总能感受到城市特有的风韵。城市公共空间中“城市家具”的设计要与城市的风貌一脉相承,要与地域文化相吻合,与城市公共空间中的建筑形式、色彩、空间尺度和人们的生活方式产生共鸣。因此进行“ 城市家具”设计时,必须尊重地域特点,尊重城市传统文化内涵,将文化性渗透到公共家具中,提升城市公共空间品质、提高城市文化内涵、延伸文脉和场所感;将历史感渗透到公共家具中,将使城市景观不丧失历史气韵,并继续发展历史。
The design of "urban furniture" should be practical, ecological, economical and artistic. In essence, the design of "urban furniture" seeks harmony between man and nature. Make modern "city furniture form and style tend to life, environmental change at the same time, more affinity. A good "urban furniture" design should combine art, technology, culture and design to meet human needs to the greatest extent. German designers have put forward the three principles of design "applicable, beautiful and economical", but the author believes that the design should also emphasize the principle of regionalization.
⑴ Humanization principle
The humanized design principle is the rational concept that meets the requirements of The Times and is the guiding ideology of product design along the right direction. People are the main body of the urban outdoor environment, and the environmental facilities are all serviced. So "furniture city" planning and design should reflect the concern's for people, focus on the people in the physiological needs and psychological feeling, by artificial basic starting point, the demand of the study, explore the desire of the various potential, people put forward various problems that exist in the outdoor living in cities, accord with human body engineering and behavioral science, detail design should accord with the requirement of human body scale, number and arrangement of the position, way, should consider people's behavior characteristic, psychological demand and solve these problems through outdoor furniture itself, make the person's organs can be extended and play a role, make people move more convenient, more comfortable, so as to realize the value and significance of people, improve the overall quality of outdoor life. In addition, humanized design should not only consider the normal requirements, but also to the disabled, the elderly and children, and other special requirements, reflect on the life of a person's care, care of social vulnerable groups, everyone can equal and free to the right in outdoor activities, efforts to create a fair and equal society environment. Therefore, the humanized design principle is the first principle to be followed in the design of "urban furniture".
With the deepening of the design of "urban furniture", "urban furniture" no longer only satisfies the single use function, but also integrates several functions into one. This can not only effectively implement the function of "city furniture", reduce the construction cost, give full play to the comprehensive benefit of the design, but also enhance the aesthetic feeling and create the perfect urban public space.
⑵ It is the principle of integration.
"Furniture city" and the relationship between urban public space environment, with people's life and the transformation of the concept is becoming more and more close, and the overall environment harmony, the coordination is the basic requirement of "urban furniture design. The concept of integration with the whole environment helps to systematize the "urban furniture" in urban public space. Therefore, the design of the "urban furniture" starting from the concept of overall, according to different use function "furniture city", determine its in a different environment of modelling, colour, material and scale, these design elements in harmony with the urban public space environment. Under the concept of overall environment of the urban public space in the "furniture city", after the systematic treatment, the interpretation, the nature of urban public space of landscape environmental image to highlight the features, making environmental landscape has obvious identifiable sex, overall environment more unified. Furniture city as the urban landscape environment constitute elements, its design in landscape environment on the overall structure of the element combination, can be combined with the different requirements of environment atmosphere, to use its form, color and texture design elements such as special processing and arrangement, the local landscape environment has obvious identifiable, became visible directional reference - "memory" of city landscape environment, inject new vitality for the whole landscape, make have characteristics and personality. The urban furniture and outdoor space environment are integrated into one, which complements each other, and expresses its thoughtful, strict and complete overall environmental image. At the same time, due to the improvement of urban furniture effect, outdoor space environment will be more pleasant, concise and rich in connotation.
⑶ The principle of ecological transformation.
"Furniture city" is mainly refers to the ecological designing principles in its access to raw materials, production, distribution, use and disposal of the whole life cycle of ecosystem, human health and safety into consideration. Specifically, is to should consider to choose small impact on the environment of raw materials, reduce the use of raw materials, optimization of processing and manufacturing technology, reduce the use phase of the environmental impact, optimize the service life of the product and the product of the scrap system. The development of a city needs to be sustainable. In promoting the construction of ecological environment and ecological residential area, the protection of the environment and the return to nature have become the common understanding of human beings. Therefore, the urban environmental landscape design should keep up with the trend of The Times, and make the appearance of the works to be natural and ecological by artistic creation and processing. Especially the important component of urban landscape, urban furniture should advocate environmental protection, ecology, energy conservation, nature. For example, in the city, the classification bins are set up to facilitate garbage classification and recycling. In addition, some dustbins themselves can be designed to be very environmentally friendly, green appearance, material selection economy, beautiful design, simple installation. Can also be performance in the furniture is environmental protection and natural creation and study of specialized subject, make furniture city propaganda image ambassador of ecology, energy saving, remind people to strengthen environmental protection consciousness.
⑷ The principle of regionalization.
City furniture design should fully respect the inner spirit of place, on the one hand, to create an ideal outdoor living space for people, on the other hand should reflect the style characteristic of the whole city, more effectively passed environmental information to the users. Because each city is located in the country, the area and the formation time difference, the city style presents the diversity. People who live in it always feel the charm of the city. The design of urban public space in the "furniture city" with the view in the city, to be in conformity with the regional culture, and the construction of urban public space form, color, space scale, and people's way of life. So to design "furniture city", must respect the regional characteristic, respect the traditional culture connotation, culture permeates public furniture, improve the quality of urban public space, improve the urban culture connotation, extension of context and sense of place; Penetrating the historical sense into the public furniture will make the urban landscape not lose its historical charm and continue to develop history.
Because of the city image and cultural differences, in the design of the furniture design of city characteristic factors into the city, the city furniture design full of local characteristics, is more advantageous to show the city style. In the design of city furniture with the method of local materials, combines local materials, on the one hand, is a reflection of the local culture, on the other hand also the surface of the occupied part of ecological compensation. As the elements of urban landscape environment, urban furniture should protect urban historical tradition -- style and regional characteristics on the basis of the basic principles of formal beauty. City furniture design elements can be from the city in the traditional style, local style, material characteristics and urban color, has the very high artistic value of the city to explore in the "prototype", make the continuity of city landscape environment development order is maintained and perfect inner structure and nature, to bring new life, city landscape environment makes its own regional characteristics of image, reflect the value orientation of the traditional culture, absorb the new culture spirit and ability of the carrier.